Paul Songer has been in the specialty coffee business for over 30 years, beginning his career at Allegro Coffee Company, a medium-sized wholesale specialty roaster in Boulder, Colorado, as a repairer and installer of espresso machines and other coffee machinery. He gradually moved from equipment to cupping and training, writing technical manuals and conducting training with sales staff, customers, and internal sensory panels as manager of training and research. During this period, he was also a partner in a Boulder coffee house, a business that has been in continuous operation since 1996. In 1998, Songer took the position of Director of Coffee Operations at Coffee Analysts, an independent lab specializing in the sensory, chemical, and physical analysis of coffee. This led to further independent research and a certificate of sensory analysis at the University of California at Davis. During this period he was a judge for one of the initial barista competitions held at the Specialty Coffee Association of America (SCAA) convention in 1998. He served for over 10 years on the Technical Standards Committee of the SCAA and has given several technical presentations at their conferences. He has had numerous articles on coffee published and is the co-author of the SCAA Water Quality Manual, which deals with the chemistry of water and its effect on brewing coffee. He has also authored or co-authored chapters in the books, Specialty Coffee: Managing Quality and The Craft and Science of Coffee. He began in COE as a participant cupper in 2000 and has served as head judge for over 35 competitions. He currently works as an independent consultant specializing in application of sensory analysis techniques to the coffee business, product development, sensory panel training, quality control, and roasting. Offered seminars include cupper training, roasting, and brewing.